EPM600 Anatomy, Physiology and Pathology Assignment-City, University of London

Instructions to students : All Questions are compulsory


Dictionaries are not permitted.

TASK: EPM600 Anatomy, Physiology and Pathology Assignment

Question 1

a)Draw a diagram of the duodenum including the main adjacent structures. Briefly describe its function.   [7 marks]

b)List three main functions of the liver. Give a brief account of each function.[6 marks] 

c)Draw a diagram of a hepatic sinusoid. Show the relation of the sinusoids to the main blood vessels and bile ducts of the liver.    [7 marks] 

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Question 2

a)Draw a schematic diagram of the human visual system showing the location of the optic chiasm, lateral geniculate nucleus, optic radiation and primary visual cortex. Indicate on the diagram the directions by which visual information from the left and right visual fields of each eye is transferred to the primary visual cortex.[7 marks]

b)Explain briefly what is meant by colour constancy and the Purkinje effect.[4 marks]

c)Explain how depth perception is achieved through stereopsis.[3 marks]

d)Give an account of the pathophysiology of glaucoma in humans, describing both forms of the condition. [6 marks]

Question 3: EPM600 Anatomy, Physiology and Pathology Assignment-CityUniversity of London

1. i) Describe the three structural types of receptor cells giving examples of each type.

ii) Describe the principal methods of receptor transduction for each of the five main                      sensory modalities. [6 marks]

2.Draw a cross sectional diagram of the cochlea. Explain how sound waves are transduced and how the structure of the cochlea allows differentiation of sound waves of different frequencies.[7 marks]

3.Compare the structure of the otolithic organs and semicircular canal system and their functioning sensing equilibrium.  [7 marks]

Question 4

a)Calculate the alveolar minute volume of a patient with tidal volume 500 mL, anatomical dead space 150 mL and a respiratory frequency of 0.2 Hz.   [3 marks]

b)Explain the role of the pulmonary surfactant with specific reference to alveolar inflation.[6 marks]

c)Give a brief account of the pathophysiology of asthma. Explain how the condition is diagnosed using spirometry. [5 marks]

d)(i) Name the four heart valves.

(ii)State which heart chamber or blood vessel is positioned on either side of each valve.

(iii)Compare the mechanisms by which the two different types of valve prevent backflow.[6 marks]

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