Subject Code & Title :- INRL4001 International Relations
Assessment Type :- Assignment
INRL4001 Assignment 2 Critical Commentary 2021-2022 Option 2 Text: Apply and discuss a theoretical perspective to critically evaluate the text and conclude by applying a different theoretical perspective to contrast with the first one.
INRL4001 International Relations Assignment – UK.
On Chinese New Year a few months ago my parents showed me President Joe Biden’s Lunar New Year greeting (…): In this season of renewal may we all find strength and joy in one another. (…) The days of the China virus rhetoric from the White House were over. A month later a shooting at a massage parlor in Atlanta killed six Asian women. In response #StopAsianHate marches spread across the nation, including in my China town neighbor hood. (…) But long before Trump took office xenophobia anti- Asian racism and Yellow Peril–style propaganda served as useful tools to advance American domestic and foreign policy goals. They may yet again.
In recent decades the defense industry has perfected this rhetoric to make the case for war on China. Republicans and Democrats (…) amplify the warmongering and push for increased defense spending. There is no violence like the mass rape and murder of war yet in this moment of outcry against anti-Asian violence, lawmakers in D.C. are bringing us to the brink of global conflict. Asian and Pacific Islander peoples around the world who are like my grand parents living in China often loved ones of people here will suffer that violence. And as in all wars the enemy abroad becomes the enemy at home making Asian Americans at home once again the target of state and community brutality.
In the United States we commonly understand Yellow Peril as a xenophobic response to influxes of Chinese laborers. Yellow Peril produced national shames such as the Chinese Exclusion Act of 1882, which remains the first and only ban on all immigrants from an ethnic group. But the propaganda also supported foreign policy. In the late nineteenth century Kaiser Wilhelm II of Germany supposedly dreamed of Buddha seated on a dragon threatening to invade Europe. He used Yellow Peril (die Gelbe Gefahr to build alliances with other imperialist nations and justify invading China first lest the East conquer the West. In the Opium Wars of the 1840s, the U.S. and other Western nations killed 30,000 Chinese people so that they could forcibly sell opium to civilians while notable Americans and elite institutions such as Harvard Yale and Princeton built their wealth on opium colonialism. This is the foundational moment of U.S.-China relations.
Today Yellow Peril propaganda is bipartisan and mainstream. Indo-Pacific commander Admiral Phil Davidson’s warning of China’s pernicious and malign influence an Atlantic Council report that lengthily describes how China presents a serious problem for the whole of the democratic world Senator Jim Inhofe’s belief that we’re in the most dangerous time of our lifetime (…). Critical to this contemporary promotion of Yellow Peril is the image of China as the military aggressor. But right now, the U.S. has
800 over seas military bases half of them encircling China. China has one in Djibouti. The U.S. spends more on defense than the next 10 nations combined including China. The U.S. has extensively planned for a naval blockade of China, cutting off its oil supply. The U.S. has 20 times the nuclear warheads of China and yet is still spending an additional $100 billion to build up a new nuclear arms arsenal. The U.S. Indo-Pacific Command has stationed 130,000 troops in the region conducting nearly daily military exercises with drones missile drills helicopters island hopping and more according to Madison Tang campaign coordinator at CODEPINK. (…)
INRL4001 International Relations Assignment – UK.
Many of these forces are based on the Pacific Islands including Guam Okinawa Palau and the Chagos Islands where the U.S. military has deported Indigenous peoples excavated sacred lands committed mass sexual violence against women and children and poisoned drinking water with chemical and biological weapons. We rarely question such contemporary colonialism but Pacific Islander Indigenous sovereignty is only table stakes in the American “pivot to Asia.” (…)
China is not a threat because it’s attacking U.S. soil. China is a threat because it threatens American global hegemony. Here the underlying logic of Yellow Peril becomes clear. Proliferating the false idea that China will take over the West rationalizes starting conflict in the Asia-Pacific this nearly perfectly parallels the geopolitical theater of a century ago. The Yellow Peril, the faceless horde the ever growing yellow population an existential threat to the West to liberal human rights to the market economy, to the “rules-based” order, to American primacy.
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