Unit Code & Title :- SP2604 Methodology
Assessment Type :- Assignment
Word Count :- 1500 words
The purpose of this laboratory report is to assess your understanding of several concepts of angular kinematics and angular kinetics taught in SP2604 module.
SP2604 Methodology Assignment – UK
Motion data from a person walking over ground gait is being provided in the attached Excel work book. For the analysis of the participant’s gait, you are required to calculate several kinematic and kinetic parameters in addition to parameters related to the biomechanical properties of triceps surae muscle tendon unit as instructed in the Methodology and Results sections below.
Use all information available to you (e.g., data in Excel sheets instructions provided under Methodology and Results lecture slides images and laboratory notes to write a succinct and accurate Methods and Results section.
• One Excel workbook containing your calculations. Save your Excel workbook as (Your Student ID_SP2604).
• One Word or PDF document containing your Methodology and Results sections. No other format will be accepted. Save your document as (YourStudentID_SP2604).
• Format your Methodology and Results sections according to the APA style.
• Total Word Count: 1500 words words in Tables Figure Captions and references will not be counted
Methodology – You are required to include the following information in a Methodology section.
A methodology section usually contains 4 parts: Participant(s) Equipment & Material Protocol Procedure Data Processing & Analysis.
• Incorporate information provided below in relevant sections participant(s) equipment & material protocol and data processing & analysis to write the Methodology section.
• To each sub-section above, add information which should be retrieved and/or calculated from data available to you and/or biomechanics textbooks (e.g., add equation used in the calculation of instantaneous velocity from a text book and cite the source in order to complete the Methodology section.
• Avoid using bullet points when writing Methodology The section should be written as an essay.
Incorporate Figure 1 (below) in your report in a relevant section.
Figure 1. 25 light-reflecting markers were mounted on the pelvis and lower limbs during the study.
Early stance of the left foot on force plate 1 (FP1) is illustrated; participant was propelling herself forward.
The following information about the participant should be incorporated into the Participant sub section:
• Age = 50 years;
• Mass = 74.3 kg;
• Height = 1.725 m;
• Shank length (distance measured between the knee joint centre and lateral malleolus): 35cm
• Triceps Surae muscle-tendon unit length: 37 cm;
The following information should be incorporated into the Equipment & Material sub-section:
• 8-camera Qualysis motion capture system;
• Sampling Frequency of the cameras: 150 frames/sec (Hz);
• 5 Kistler force plates identified as FP1-FP5 in Figure 1 above;
• Sampling Frequency of the force plates: 150 frames/sec (Hz);
• A 25-marker set to identify major segments and joints of the lower limbs
In addition to the information above, comment on:
o Laboratory coordinate system include information about the vertical and the two horizontal axes. Important: Identify along what axis the participant was walking.
The following information should be incorporated into the Protocol (Procedure) sub-section:
• Data collection period: 2.48 seconds
In addition to information above, add the following to the Protocol sub-section:
o Instructions to the participant (i.e., what instructions could have been given to the participant?)
o Comment on the direction of movement (e.g. toward laboratory origin or away from it?).
The following information should be incorporated into the Data Processing & Analysis sub-section:
• Data provided in the Excel workbook belongs to the Left lower limb.
• Sheet called (Angles), contains information about joint ankle knee hip rotations angles around the x, y, and z axes. Note. Scroll down the page to see all data.
• Sheet called Moments contain moments of force torques about the ankle knee and hip joints around the 3 axes (x,y,z) for the Left lower limb. Note. Do not delete rows 3-13 which contain no information.Scroll down the page to see all data.
• One stride of the Left lower limb from left heel strike to left heel strike happened between rows 168 and 331 of the Excel sheet and should be used for this laboratory report.
• Stance phase of the stride above contained 99 rows (Excel rows 168-266) – 60% of the stride length.
• Swing phase of the stride above contained 65 frames (Excel rows 267-331) – 40% of the stride length.
In the Methodology section add information on how the following parameters were decided and/or calculated provide relevant citations from biomechanics text books when presenting formulae where required):
1.The two axes defined the sagittal plane for the stride above
2.Stride length (for the one stride above)
3. Instantaneous Angular Velocity and Acceleration values for the Ankle Knee and Hip joints
4.Phase Plots for Ankle, Knee only
5.Ankle-Knee Angle-Angle diagram
6.Ankle-Knee Continuous Relative Phase (CRP)
7.Triceps Surae muscle-tendon unit length changes during the stride above
8.Linear displacement of the lateral malleolus during rotation of the knee joint through its range of motion for the stride above
9.Power of the Ankle Knee Hip joints in the sagittal plane for the stride above
In Summary your methodology should describe how the requested parameters 1-9 above were retrieved/calculated.
Results – You are required to include the following information in a Results section.
• Calculate and Show your work in separate Excel sheets identified.
• Step by step, report results in the Results section and refer to the relevant Excel sheet (where work is shown and saved).
• All calculations must be in the Excel workbook in the relevant sheets.
• All reports must be in the Results sections Word or PDF document under relevant subheadings.
• Avoid using bullet points when writing Results section. Instead provide relevant sub headings (e.g., subheadings that match the Excel sheets names. The section should be written as an essay.
According to the information provided in the Methodology Results section should at least contain the following:
Plot of the Ankle, Knee, Hip joints
o In the sheet called “Angles”:
i. Plot Ankle, Knee and Hip joints rotation in the sagittal plane for the stride above;
ii. For each plot, provide Axes title and use appropriate units for each axis.
o In the sheet called Stride Length 3D (x,y,z) coordinates of a marker placed on the left heel L.Heel are provided. In this sheet:
i. Calculate length of the left stride.
ii. Note. Description of how the stride length was measured should have already been provided in the Methodology section.
o Use sheet called velocity-acceleration In this sheet:
i. Calculate instantaneous velocity and acceleration of the ankle knee and hip joints for rotations happened in the sagittal plane. Clearly provide relevant headings to identify different columns which contain your calculations or use headings already provided;
ii. Note. Description of how the instantaneous velocity and acceleration were calculated should have already been provided in the Methodology section.
iii. Plot Knee velocity. Use appropriate title and units for each axis.
iv. In the result section report largest velocity of the knee joint observed during the stride and comment whether this maximum velocity was during flexion or extension of the knee joint. Note differences in the sign of velocity during flexion or extension of the knee joint. Report the largest velocity regardless of the sign.
o Use sheet called Phase Angle & Angle-Angle. In this sheet:
i. Calculate “Phase Angles” for the Ankle and Knee joints. DO NOT ADJUST CALCULATED PHASE ANGLES TO EXPRESS THEM FROM A RIGHT ZERO.
ii. Plot Phase Plots for the Ankle and Knee joints Use appropriate title and units for each axis.
iii. Plot Angle Angle diagram for the Ankle-Knee Use an arrow(s) to identify direction of the un folding movement stride. Use appropriate title and units for each axis.
iv.Calculate Continuous Relative Phase (Crp) For Ankle-Knee. Do Not Adjust Calculated Phase Angles To Express Them From A Right Zero. Simply Subtract Phase Angle Calculated For The Proximal Joint From The Phase Angle Calculated For The Distal Joint.
v. As stated before your Methodology section should include information on how Phase Angles and CRP are calculated. Cite the reference(s) used.
vi. Plot CRP. Provide axes title.
vii. Comment on whether the ankle and knee joints were coordinated in phase or out of phase for the majority of the stride based on CRP values observed.
o Use sheet called MTU Length In this sheet:
i. Calculate range of motion of the ankle and knee joints in the sagittal plane
for the stride under study. Show your work.
ii. Your Methodology should have a description of how ROM of the ankle and knee were calculated.
iii. Use coefficients of the regression line reported by Grieve et al. (1978) to calculate % change in the Triceps Surae muscle-tendon unit (MTU) length and minimum and maximum length of the MTU length during the one stride under study To this end:
▪ Calculate and report in the Excel file, %alterations in the MTU length due to Ankle joint angles during the stride;
▪ Calculate and report in the Excel file, %alterations in the MTU length due to Knee joint angles during the stride;
▪ Calculate and report in the Excel file, total %alterations in the MTU length due to combined Ankle and Knee joint angles during the stride;
▪ Calculate in the Excel file and report in the Results section minimum and maximum MTU length during the stride. (Note. Greieve’s coefficients are also included in the Excel sheet)
iv.Your Methodology should have a description on how change in the Triceps Surae muscle-tendon unit length was calculated.
v.Calculate and report in the Results section Tricpes Surae muscle-tendon unit minimum and maximum strain during the one stride under study. Your Methodology should have a description on how strain in the Triceps Surae muscle-tendon unit length was calculated. Calculate both positive and negative strains observed.
vi.Comment on where the shortest and longest lengths of the Triceps Surae muscle-tendon unit were observed during the stride (i.e., during stance or swing phase of the gait).
o Use sheet called “Lat Mal linear displacement”. In this sheet:
i. Calculate linear displacement of the lateral malleolus due to knee rotation during the one stride under study.
ii. Your Methodology should have a description on how linear displacement of the lateral malleolus was calculated.
iii. Report linear displacement of the lateral malleolus during knee rotation in one stride in the Results section.
Excel sheet called Moments contain moments of force (torques) recorded around the x, y, and z axes of the left ankle knee and hip joints.
o Use sheet called Powers. In this sheet:
i. Calculate power for rotations which occurred around the ankle knee and hip joints in the sagittal plane during the stance phase. Note. Stance phase of this stride occurred between rows 168 and 266 in the Excel work book.
ii. Report largest powers around the ankle knee and hip for the stance phase of the stride under study in the Results section. Note – largest absolute values (i.e., regardless of the sign associated with the power) should be reported.
iii. Your Methodology should have a description on how power was calculated.
iv. For the Ankle joint only: comment on whether this largest power was generated and/or absorbed during the stance of the stride phase.